Did ancient humans think like us? How can we use the archaeological record to answer this question? A group of archaeologists, philosophers and biologists came together in mid-July to address questions such as these. Hosted by the Centre for the Philosophy of the Science, and funded by CASS, papers addressed human cognitive evolution, theoretical and philosophical issues in the historical sciences, and intersections between archaeology and biology. Stay tuned for a special issue of the journal Biological Theory based on papers from the conference!